Question: How Do You Determine The Risk Of Infection?

Is temperature screening effective to detect the coronavirus disease?

See full answerTemperature screening alone, at exit or entry, is not an effective way to stop international spread, since infected individuals may be in incubation period, may not express apparent symptoms early on in the course of the disease, or may dissimulate fever through the use of antipyretics; in addition, such measures require substantial investments for what may bear little benefits.

It is more effective to provide prevention recommendation messages to travellers and to collect health declarations at arrival, with travellers’ contact details, to allow for a proper risk assessment and a possible contact tracing of incoming travellers..

What is the recovery time for the coronavirus disease?

Using available preliminary data, the median time from onset to clinical recovery for mild cases is approximately 2 weeks and is 3-6 weeks for patients with severe or critical disease.

Can COVID-19 be transmitted through feces or urine?

SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other biological samples, including the urine and feces of some patients. One study found viable SARS-CoV-2 in the urine of one patient. Three studies have cultured SARS-CoV-2 from stool specimens. To date, however, there have been no published reports of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through feces or urine.

Can COVID-19 be transmitted through food?

There is currently no evidence that people can catch COVID-19 from food. The virus that causes COVID-19 can be killed at temperatures similar to that of other known viruses and bacteria found in food.

Can the coronavirus spread via feces?

There is some evidence that COVID-19 infection may lead to intestinal infection and be present in faeces. However, to date only one study has cultured the COVID-19 virus from a single stool specimen. There have been no reports of faecal−oral transmission of the COVID-19 virus to date.

Can coronavirus disease spread through raw food?

As a general rule, the consumption of raw or undercooked animal products should be avoided. Raw meat, raw milk or raw animal organs should be handled with care to avoid cross- contamination with uncooked foods.

What percentage of COVID-19 infections are severe?

For COVID-19, data to date suggest that 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic, 15% are severe infection, requiring oxygen and 5% are critical infections, requiring ventilation.

Who is at risk for coronavirus?

See full answerThe virus that causes COVID-19 infects people of all ages. However, evidence to date suggests that two groups of people are at a higher risk of getting severe COVID-19 disease. These are older people (that is people over 60 years old); and those with underlying medical conditions (such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer). The risk of severe disease gradually increases with age starting from around 40 years. It’s important that adults in this age range protect themselves and in turn protect others that may be more vulnerable.WHO has issued advice for these two groups and for community support to ensure that they are protected from COVID-19 without being isolated, stigmatized, left in a position of increased vulnerability or unable to access basic provisions and social care.

What is the incubation period of the coronavirus disease?

The incubation period of COVID-19, which is the time between exposure to the virus and symptom onset, is on average 5-6 days, but can be as long as 14 days. Thus, quarantine should be in place for 14 days from the last exposure to a confirmed case.

How dangerous is the coronavirus disease?

Although for most people COVID-19 causes only mild illness, it can make some people very ill. More rarely, the disease can be fatal. Older people, and those with pre- existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes) appear to be more vulnerable.

What happens when you get the coronavirus disease?

People with COVID-19 generally develop signs and symptoms, including mild respiratory symptoms and fever, on an average of 5-6 days after infection (mean incubation period 5-6 days, range 1-14 days). Most people infected with COVID-19 virus have mild disease and recover.

What factors should organizers and health authorities look at when assessing whether the risks are acceptable or not?

See full answerFor countries not currently known to be experiencing community transmission of COVID-19, the priority consideration will be whether the planned mass gathering event substantially increases the risk of the virus entering the country and becoming established, as well as the risk for participants to importing infection back to their home country and further increasing global spread. In making this assessment, the organizers and their national or local health authorities should recognize that the risk of imported cases of COVID-19 is naturally linked to international travel. They should also recognize that it is neither realistic or desirable to aim for zero risk. When organizers and health authorities are determining whether to hold a mass gathering, they should determine what is an acceptable risk and what additional measures should be implemented to mitigate the risks.For countries where COVID-19 has already started to spread in the community, key consideration will be:* aiming at containing or at least slowing down the spread of the virus in the local community/country.* preventing participants from other countries being infected with COVID-19In each case the risk should be considered in the context of the known features of COVID-19, its severity, its transmissibility and the effectiveness of measures to prevent or reduce transmission. The strain already placed on the local health system in responding to COVID-19 outbreak(s), and the additional strain the mass gathering might place on the system also need to be taken into account.You can find more advice on what to look at in the WHO document Key planning recommendations for Mass Gatherings in the context of the current COVID-19 outbreak of 14 February 2020. See: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/key-planning-recommendations-for-mass-gatherings-in-the-context-of-the-current-covid-19-outbreak

What if my organization does not have the expertise to assess the risks COVID-19 poses for our planned mass gathering?

The national and local public health authorities in the country where you plan to hold the mass gathering will most likely know how to conduct a health risk assessment. If there is a WHO Country Office there they may also be able to provide some expert support. So too might the WHO Regional Office in your part of the world. You can find the names and contact details of the WHO Regional Offices at https://www.who.int/about/who-we-are/regional-offices

Are smokers at higher risks of COVID-19?

See full answerA review of studies by public health experts convened by WHO on 29 April 2020 found that smokers are more likely to develop severe disease with COVID-19, compared to non-smokers. COVID-19 is an infectious disease that primarily attacks the lungs. Smoking impairs lung function making it harder for the body to fight off coronaviruses and other diseases. Tobacco is also a major risk factor for noncommunicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes which put people with these conditions at higher risk for developing severe illness when affected by COVID-19.

Can the coronavirus disease be transmitted in hot or humid climates?

From the evidence so far, the COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in ALL AREAS, including areas with hot and humid weather. Regardless of climate, adopt protective measures if you live in, or travel to an area reporting COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.